# UPSC SCRA Exam Syllabus – Mathematics

About Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA):

Special Class Railway Apprentice is a competitive Exam, managed/ conducted by UPSC, on the behalf of Ministry of Indian Railways (Railway Board) for the appointment of personnel in the Indian Railways Mechanical Department. Successful candidates in SCRA exam will undergo a four year Apprenticeship Training program, before they will be appointed as probationers in the Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers.

• Syllabus of Mathematics Paper for UPSC SCRA Exam

### Algebra

Concept of a set, Union and Intersection of sets, Complement of a set, Null set, Universal set and Power set, Venn diagrams and simple applications. Cartesian product of two sets, relation and mapping -examples, Binary operation on a set – examples. Representation of real numbers on a line.

Complex numbers: Modulus, Argument, Algebraic operations on complex numbers. Cube roots of unity. Binary system of numbers, Conversion of a decimal number to a binary number and vice-versa.

Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic progressions. Summation of series involving A.P., G.P., and H.P..Quadratic equations with real co-efficients. Quadratic expressions: extreme values. Permutation and Combination, Binomial theorem and its applications.

Matrices and Determinants: Types of matrices, equality, matrix addition and scalar multiplication -properties. Matrix multiplication — non-commutative and distributive property over addition. Transpose of a matrix, Determinant of a matrix. Minors and Cofactors. Properties of determinants. Singular and non-singular matrices. Adjoint and Inverse of a square-matrix, Solution of a system of linear equations in two and three variables-elimination method, Cramers rule and Matrix inversion method (Matrices with m rows and n columns where m, n < to 3 are to be considered). Idea of a Group, Order of a Group, Abelian Group. Identitiy and inverse elements Illustration by simple examples.

### Trigonometry

Addition and subtraction formulae, multiple and sub-multiple angles. Product and factoring formulae. Inverse trigonometric functions – Domains, Ranges and Graphs. DeMoivre’s theorem, expansion of Sin n0 and Cos n0 in a series of multiples of Sines and Cosines. Solution of simple trigonometric equations. Applications: Heights and Distance.

### Analytic Geometry (two dimensions)

Rectangular Cartesian. Coordinate system, distance between two points, equation of a straight line in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line. Transformation of axes. Pair of straight lines, general equation of second degree in x and y – condition to represent a pair of straight lines, point of intersection, angle between two lines. Equation of a circle in standard and in general form, equations of tangent and normal at a point, orthogonality of two cricles. Standard equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola – parametric equations, equations of tangent and normal at a point in both cartesian and parametric forms.

### Differential Calculus

Concept of a real valued function – domain, range and graph. Composite functions, one to one, onto and inverse functions, algebra of real functions, examples of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Notion of limit, Standard limits – examples. Continuity of functions – examples, algebraic operations on continuous functions. Derivative of a function at a point, geometrical and physical interpretation of a derivative – applications. Derivative of sum, product and quotient of functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, derivative of a composite
function, chain rule. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s theorem (statement only), increasing and decreasing functions. Application of derivatives in problems of maxima, minima, greatest and least values of a function.

### Integral Calculus and Differential equations

Integral Calculus: Integration as inverse of differential, integration by substitution and by parts, standard integrals involving algebraic expression, trigonometric, exponential and hyperbolic functions. Evaluation of definite integrals-determination of areas of plane regions bounded by curves – applications.

Differential equations: Definition of order and degree of a differential equation, formation of a differential equation by examples. General and particular solution of a differential equation, solution of first order and first degree differential equation of various types – examples. Solution of second order homogeneous differential equation with constant co-efficients.

### Vectors and its applications

Magnitude and direction of a vector, equal vectors, unit vector, zero vector, vectors in two and three dimensions, position vector. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar, sum and difference of two vectors, Parallelogram law and triangle law of addition. Multiplication of vectors — scalar product or dot product of two vectors, perpendicularity, commutative and distributive properties. Vector product or cross product of two vectors. Scalar and vector triple products. Equations of a line, plane and sphere in vector form – simple problems. Area of a triangle, parallelogram and problems of plane geometry and trigonometry using vector methods. Work done by a force and moment of a force.

### Statistics and probability

Statistics: Frequency distribution, cumulative frequency distribution – examples. Graphical representation – Histogram, frequency polygon – examples. Measure of central tendency – mean, median and mode. Variance and standard deviation – determination and comparison. Correlation and regression.

Probability: Random experiment, outcomes and associated sample space, events, mutually exclusive and exhaustive events, impossible and certain events. Union and Intersection of events. Complementary, elementary and composite events. Definition of probability : classical and statistical – examples. Elementary theorems on probability – simple problems. Conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem – simple problems. Random variable as function on a sample space. Binomial distribution, examples of random experiments giving rise to Binomial distribution.

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